Campylobacter infection in Macaques

Campylobacter is 1 of 4 key global causes of diarrhoeal diseases. It is considered to be the most common bacterial cause of human gastroenteritis in the world.

In our institution, we obtained scat samples of Macaques monkey from Swoyambhunath and Pashupatinath temple. From this sample, we extracted Campylobacter species DNA, then performed PCR for 16s rRNA and Sanger sequencing was done. In this research, we found a novel species along with indication of enzootic transfer of Campylobacter species from man to monkeys and monkeys to man.

Environmental Surveillance of Typhoid

Typhoid fever is caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi bacteria. Typhoid fever is rare in developed countries. It is still a serious health threat in the developing world, especially for children. We monitored environmental burden of S. Typhi in sewage. This project was funded by Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

Sewage sample was collected by automated machine BioBot at different time intervals along with grab samples. The sewage samples were enriched in selenite F broth and cultured on SS Agar. DNA was extracted from direct sewage and enriched broth samples. PCR was performed for detection of S. typhi. Whole Genome sequencing was performed for S. typhi detected samples.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Elephant

We isolated Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA from elephant’s lung tissue, blood and sputum(samples obtained NTNC). Then, real time PCR was performed for detection. Further sequencing is in the process to relate anthropogenic transfer of M. tuberculosis to elephant in concept of One Health.

Vibrio cholerae

Cholera, an acute diarrheal disease caused by toxigenic strains of Vibrio cholerae, remains major killer disease world-wide. Though being absolutely preventive and curable disease, significant number of people dies annually of cholera in Nepal especially during epidemics due to poor sanitation and lack of education and health facilities. Because Vibrio cholerae has been proved to be an autochthonous organism of natural water bodies, study on its source and transmission becomes crucial especially indeveloping countries like Nepal with poor sanitary condition. CMDN/INPL, in collaboration with International Center for Medical Science (KCMS), has been carrying out a molecular metagenomics (environmental genomics) based study in outbreak areas like Doti, Bajhang and Kathmandu of Nepal.